According to EFSA, palm oil becomes potentially cancer-causing when it is processed at high temperatures (approx. 200°C). When refining certain vegetable oils, EFSA found that the following carcinogens formed: glycidyl fatty acid esters (GE), 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD), and 2-monochloropropanediol (2-MCPD). The highest levels of these substances were discovered in palm oils and palm fats.
EFSA cites margarine and "pastries and cakes" as the main sources of exposure for consumers aged three and above. EFSA did not directly mention Nutella. Nonetheless, palm oil is a primary ingredient in the tasty spread, which is owned by Italian company Ferrero.